The soldiers were killed when a suicide bomber hit the base with an explosive-laden Humvee.
A suicide bomber drove an explosives-laden vehicle through an Afghan Defense Force base in the east of the country, killing at least eight security agents in an attack claimed by the Taliban.
The pre-dawn assault on Saturday took place in the turbulent Nangarhar province where the Taliban claimed responsibility for several deadly assaults on government forces.
It came two days after the Pentagon said the Taliban was breaking promises made in an agreement signed with Washington last year, including reducing violence and cutting ties with al-Qaeda.
The eight were killed when the bomber struck the base with a Humvee, the governor’s office of Nangarhar said in a statement.
Deputy head of Nangarhar Provincial Council Ajmal Omar confirmed the attack but estimated the number of soldiers dead at 15 with five injured.
Taliban spokesman Zabihullah Mujahid said his group carried out the attack.
The governor’s office said security forces seized another vehicle loaded with explosives near the town of Jalalabad, capital of Nangarhar.
The province of Nangarhar has witnessed several recent deadly attacks carried out by the armed group ISIL (ISIS).
Meanwhile, two roadside bombs exploded in Kabul on Saturday, but there were no casualties, police said.
Violence has escalated across Afghanistan even as the Taliban and the government engage in peace talks that began in September. So far, discussions have failed to break through.
The new Biden administration in the United States has accused the Taliban of failing to reduce violence despite signing a deal with Washington last year to do so.
The deal required the Taliban to stop attacks on US forces, sharply reduce violence, and advance peace talks with the government in Kabul.
In return, the United States would regularly reduce its troops in the country and withdraw all of its forces by May 2021.
But on Thursday, the Pentagon said, “The Taliban are failing to honor their commitments to reduce violence and renounce their ties to Al Qaeda.”
The Biden administration is currently reviewing the deal, which the previous Trump administration signed with the armed group in the Qatari capital in February 2020.